I went to a really interesting talk about IBM’s Watson by Bill Murdock, a member of the Algorithms team (and fellow Georgia Tech alum). The room was one of the largest lecture rooms the College of Computing has access to and the interest was well beyond capacity. Here are some notes I took of his presentation for those of you who were unable to attend. He gave a pretty good explanation of some of the more egregious snafus that happened during the course of the tournament, including the Final Jeopardy question where it seemed to indicate that it thought Toronto was a city in the US.
I think I was most surprised in the end by how much of Watson was based on statistical reasoning over unstructured text documents, given the problem domain naturally lends it self to symbolic reasoning and inference techniques.
Speaker: Bill Murdock - IBM Research
DeepBlue defeating Gary Kasparov at chess was ~10 years ago
DeepQA is a very different problem:
numerous ways express a conceptual question
Where was Einstein born?
“Hard part for Watson is finding and justifying an answer and providing a confidence” People are extremely good at this, though
Top human players are really good. Winners win well over half the board.
Ken Jennings answers 60-70 percent of questions, 85% right consistently DeepQA started off much worse. Got less than half of things it was most confident about right. Typically less than 20% confident about any answer.
big ass diagram of architecture here ----
Deep evidence scoring
Presenter’s Computer crashes here
DeepBlue and DeepQA have very little in common
Watson’s information retrieval process was naturally very parallellizable
DeepQA got WAY BETTER in the few years it was under development
Jeopardy is hard because of a need for precision, confidence, and speed
If you ran the DeepQA answer search process on single processor sequentially, it would typically take ~2 hours
Over 2800 Power7 cores the process can be parallelized down to ~3 seconds
Hypothesis generation tends to be liberal in accepting candidate hypotheses for exploration, choosing to let later stages of the pipeline remove answers rather than dismissing them outright.
Evidence profiles were diagnostic tools for evaluating what Watson did, but jeopardy does not demand explanation of support. Other domains would perhaps be more critical.
For example, healthcare applications would likely demand an explanation of why a particular answer was given before accepting it
Medicine has a constantly updating corpus of information that may cause new answers to be given for medical domain questions
Really surprised we got this right: ($600) Literary character APB: Wanted for general evilness, last seen at the tower of Barad-Dur; it’s a giant eye, folks. Kinda hard to miss.
WATSON: “Sauron” (0.74) - CORRECT 4 independent clauses, lots of slang, not useful phrases (kinda, folks) used tower of Barad-Dur to root search
($200) Name The Decade: Disneyland opens and The Peace Symbol is created WATSON: “1950’s”
did not solve problem by looking up db of events manual effort needed to create this only would work on narrow set of questions
Instead, organized information to concept “decade”, had strong evidence that 1950’s was a decade
Evidence profile shows
Kingdom on almost all dimensions - big
factors - Document Support and Type Match
($600) Olympic ODDITIES: A 1976 entrant in the “modern” this was kicked out for wiring his epee to score points without touching his foe WATSON: “Pentathalon” CORRECT
epee would suggest fencing, but modern suggest something else
a priori probability was much higher that fencing would be the answer compared to pentathalon. passage support helped a lot
($1000) OLYMPIC ODDITIES: It was the anatomical oddity of US gymnast George Eyser, who won a gold medal on the parallel bars in 1904 WATSON: leg (0.61) - WRONG! (Correct answer: “wooden leg”)
very difficult to anticipate a concept like “oddity”, we DO NOT build a database ahead of time
found passage stating “George Eyser’s left leg was made out of wood”, but did not understand which part was the “oddity” did not understand oddity of leg versus the fact that it was wood
Literary Character APB: His victims include Charity Burbage, Mad Eye Moody and Severus Snape; he’d be easier to catch if you’d just name him
Harry Potter - WRONG (correct answer: Lord Voldemort)
close call, voldemort was second strongest confidence didn’t understand that all elements in the category were bad guys weak reference to Voldemort with no one saying his name was totally lost on us victim and murderer is a relationship that DeepQA could understand
FINAL FRONTIERS: It’s a 4-letter term for a type of summit; the first 3 letters mean a type of simian
WATSON: Peak (0.65) - WRONG! (Correct Ans: Apex)
Matched first constraint, second constraint was not understood
skip some questions
DIALING FOR DIALECTS: Dialects of this language include Wu, Yue, and Hakka
Watson: Cantonese (0.41) - WRONG (Chinese)
Rare case where open domain type analysis hurts difference between dialect versus language is subtle. Documents often refer to cantonese as a language
US Cities - Largest airport is named for a WWII hero; it’s second largest, for a WWII battle
Watson: Toronto (0.14) - WRONG Chicago
Toronto v chicago
one of the challenging issues is this clue asking for a US city? for this clue, we do propose US City as the answer type with moderate confidence (not extremely high) Is Toronto a US city? Go to db of entities, first hit was “Toronto the largest city in Canada” lots of other smaller entities, e.g. band, couple of small cities in Iowa and Ohio lots of evidence that it was a city list of fictional US presidents lists one being kidnapped in Toronto List of US and Canadian Cities rare case where and is a union, meant or (Note: Wikipedia kind of fucked Watson) flaky and unreliable evidence if it hadn’t been final Jeopardy, Watson would not have answered. would have worked reasonably well in different problem domain if Watson could produce Evidence and answer set
What did Bill work on? Everything, but in particular answer scoring and deep evidence scoring
Very little is specific to Jeopardy, besides training based on previous games of Jeopardy some things (e.g. 4 letter word meaning X) would be of limited utility most of it is still generalizable
what was the relative importance of ontologies? Looked at OpenPSYCH (sp?) Not particularly useful, some typing info for terms is available from this corpus Had lots of other typing sources, so not useful overall
Watson would have a chance to do much better at a large portion of the reasons people use search engines currently, such as asking a question and desiring an answer rather than a collection of potentially related documents.